HKH Climate and Hydrology Visualization and Access Portal (HI−CHAP)
Historical Trend and Future Projection of Climate/Hydrology in Himalaya
Climate and Water interactive tool enables technical and non-technical audiences alike to easily and intuitively access leading climate change and water availability information; visualize the impacts of climate change on major river basins over HKH region and also improve understanding of the partitioning of runoff contribution from different natural sources (snow, glacier, rainfall and base flow) anywhere on upper basin of HKH region. The purpose of the Climate and Water interactive tool is disseminate recent climate and water products generated by ICIMOD with its partners and to communicate present conditions and future scenarios in water and climate based on current scientific understandings and also to enhance public understanding of possible future climate patterns at the spatial scale of catchments and watersheds.
The first generation of this interactive tool allows the user to choose a basin and assess how climate has changed over time and what future changes are projected to occur in a given area. It also how climate change impacts on cryosphere and water resources corresponding to base and different future climate scenarios at upper sub-basin and catchment in the five (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Mekong and Salween) basins. This interactive tool represents the first time ever the full range of climate history and impacts future scenario for water availability and run off dependency have been brought together in a user-friendly format.
The interactive tool application is primarily based on following data:
Historical Climate data
Daily rainfall analysis using high resolution gridded rainfall dataset developed by APHRODITE’s Water Resources (Asian Precipitation – Highly – Resolved Observational Daily Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources, http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/precip/research/index.html) were used to analyze the rainfall variability. Rainfall analysis was carried out from daily data for the period 1951 to 2007.
For the temperature analysis, 1° resolution maximum and minimum daily data generated by Hydro-climatological Group, Princeton University were used. Princeton University estimated temperature are biased corrected and are hybrid of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and observations
For climate scenario, in total 43 model runs were analyzed for the RCP45 and 41 model runs for RCP85. These ensembles contain both different climate models and different runs with the same model (different initial conditions). For each model run the average annual difference in precipitation (%) and temperature (K) was determined (2021-2050 relative to 1961-1990). Based on these projected differences four combinations (dry and cold; dry and warm; wet and cold; wet and warm) for each RCP were derived based on the 10th and 90th percentile values of the projected changes. Finally the following GCM’s used for this application.
Current water availability and projections
The SPHY hydrological model is set up for the upstream river basins of the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Salween and Mekong basins. The upstream models are forced by both precipitation and air temperature outputs of a regional climate model and a selection of global climate models:
The Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research is partner in the HICAP and outputs from their RCM simulations for RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 until 2050 are used to force the model.
GCM AR5 data are downloaded from the CMIP5 model archive for the same RCPs. Four are selected per RCP that span the entire range of possible futures: dry and cold, dry and warm, wet and cold, wet and warm.
Current and future water balance
And water balance analysis of three major basins (Indus, Brahmaputra and Koshi) were done by SWAT model.
view historic temperature and rainfall maps for the major basins of HKH region.
view state-of-the-art future projections of temperature and rainfall over in the major basins of HKH region.
view and download maps, graph, chart and data in a few easy steps.
view water availability and run off dependency from Ice/snow/rain corresponding to base and future climate scenarios at sub-basin and catchment in the three basins.
view the partition of runoff contribution from different natural sources ( snow, glacier, rainfall and base flow) corresponding to base and different future climate scenarios at upper sub-basin and catchment in the five ( Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Mekong and Salween) basins.
view the water balance at catchment level of three basins (Indus, Brahmaputra and Koshi) corresponding to base and different future climate scenarios.
view projected changes in glacier area for the five basins between 2010 and 2050.
view and download water availability data according to base and different future climate scenarios, graph, chart and data in a few easy steps.
These data are being made available to provide immediate access for the convenience of interested persons. These are believed to be reliable, though human or mechanical error remain a possibility. Therefore, there is no guarantee as to the accuracy, completeness, timeliness, or correct sequencing of the data. None of those involved in creating, processing, or distributing this information shall be responsible for any errors or omissions, or for the use or results obtained from the use of this information.
For further information contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mountain Environment Regional Information System (MENRIS)
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development